May

Colin Chapman Archive and Resource May 2015

Newsletter – Number 52

  1. The Antique Automobile Club of America Museum
  2. Exhibition /Museum Name/ Organisation: The Sunderland Trust
  3. Lotus Elan and the adverts
  4. The Avengers and The Prisoner: Episode 2, Take 2
  5. Newest Acquisitions to the A&R Library/Book Review
  6. Lotus 72 Upload (Gary Critcher)
  7. Lotus collectibles
  8. Lotus interest on YouTube

All previous articles relating to these are held on the website.

1. The Antique Automobile Club of America Museum

Director of Marketing & Publicity
717-566-7100 ext. 123
NGates@AACAMuseum.org

Keep up to Speed Join our e-newsletter and be the first to know about upcoming events and activities.

 

Walk the Museum online http://maps.google.com/maps/place?cid=7942961484890312558

 

Exhibits:

  • Cammack Tucker Exhibit – Permanent Exhibit – Now Open!
  • Lotus:  The Art of Lightness – January 24 – April 26
  • Motorbikes for the Masses – March 14 – October 11
  • A Family Affair:  Station Wagons – May 23 – October 11
  • Automotive Jewelry:  Art Exhibit by Michael Furman – May 23 – September 19
  • Micro & Mini Cars – November 21 – April 22, 2016
  • Cars & Christmas – November 21 – January 3, 2016

Events:

  • Easter Egg Hunt – March 28
  • Castaway Critters Exotic Car Show – April 25
  • Bus Spring Fling – June 6
  • Elegance at Hershey Weekend – June 12 -14
  • CARnival Museum Car Show – June 20
  • Matchbox Collectors Show – September 27
  • AACA National Fall Meet – October 7-10
  • Trunk or Treat – October 24

2. Exhibition /Museum Name/ Organisation: The Sunderland Trust

Address: The Pembroke Dock Heritage Centre, Pembroke Dock, West Wales, UK
Web: www.sunderlandtrust.org.uk
Tel:01646 684220

Introduction

The editors visit a range of museums and collections they consider to have a connection with Chapman. In particular there is an obvious interest in motoring/motor racing, engineering, aviation, and industrial /product design.

Museums are visited not only to learn from the content but also to study the presentation, levels of interpretation and educational opportunities offered. Also considered is the extent that opportunities are exploited and educational /participation opportunities are created.

The editors have been impressed by the engineering and role of the Sunderland since building scale models in teenage. It was a valuable experience to visit the Trust and related sites in the locality.

The Heritage Centre

The Heritage Centre capitalizes and celebrates the Docks two hundred year social, economic and military history.

The Trust is housed within the former Georgian Garrison Chapel in the main historic dock complex which is conveniently located close to the town centre and shops
In particular it is proud of the fact that it was during the Second World War one of the largest flying boat stations. Pembroke Dock facing west out into the Atlantic played a very important role being the station for Sunderland engaged in rescue and anti-submarine activities guarding convoys. The Sunderland and Pembroke Dock played a significant role in the Battle of the Atlantic.

Sunderland T9044 and Pembroke Dock
From the net:

The Short S.25 Sunderland was a British flying boat patrol bomber developed for the Royal Air Force (RAF) by Short Brothers. It took its service name from the town (latterly, city) and port of Sunderland in northeast England.

Based in part upon the S.23 Empire flying boat, the flagship of Imperial Airways, the S.25 was extensively re-engineered for military service. It was one of the most powerful and widely used flying boats throughout the Second World War,[1] and was involved in countering the threat posed by German U-boats in the Battle of the Atlantic. RAF Sunderland’s also saw service throughout the Korean War and continued in service until 1959. It also took part in the Berlin airlift. Sunderland’s remained in service with the Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF) until 1967.

Sunderland’s converted for civil use, known as Short Sandringhams, continued in airline operation until 1974. A single airworthy example remains on display in Florida at Fantasy of Flight. A sunken Mark I Sunderland, identified as the Sunderland T9044 of No 210 Squadron, RAF, was discovered in 2000 off the coast of Wales; there are plans to raise it in the near future.

Sunderland T9044 lies on the seabed off Pembroke Dock in Wales.[33] The site is protected, and The Pembroke Dock Sunderland Trust aims to recover the aircraft in the future.[34] Certain parts of the aircraft have already been recovered including two engines and one of the machine guns and are on display at the Pembroke Dock Heritage Centre.[35] The Heritage Centre is located in the restored Georgian Garrison Chapel where it tells not just the story of T9044 but also that of Wales’ only Royal Dockyard and over 200 years of social, economic and military history.

General characteristics
• Crew: 9—11 (two pilots, radio operator, navigator, engineer, bomb-aimer, three to five gunners)
• Length: 85 ft. 4 in (26.0 m)
• Wingspan: 112 ft. 9½ in (34.39 m)
• Height: 32 ft. 10½ in (10 m)
• Wing area: 1,487 ft² (138 m²)
• Empty weight: 34,500 lb. (15,663 kg)
• Loaded weight: 58,000 lb. (26,332 kg)
• Powerplant: 4 × Bristol Pegasus XVIII nine-cylinder radial engine, 1,065 hp (794 kW) each
Performance
• Maximum speed: 210 mph (336 km/h) at 6,500 ft. (2,000 m)
• Cruise speed: 178 mph (285 km/h) at 5,000 ft. (1,500 m)
• Stall speed: 78 mph (125 km/h)
• Range: 1,780 mi (2,848 km)
• Service ceiling: 16,000 ft. (4,880 m)
• Rate of climb: 720 ft./min (3.67 m/s)
• Wing loading: 39 lb./ft² (191 kg/m²)
• Power/mass: .073 hp/lb. (.121 kW/kg)
Armament
• Guns:
o 16× 0.303 inch (7.7 mm) Browning machine guns
o 2× Browning 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) machine gun
• Bombs: various defensive and offensive munitions, including bombs, mines and depth charges carried internally and, some, winched out beneath the wings. Manually launched flares, sea markers and smoke-floats.

Sunderland

The Sunderland was primarily all metal flush riveted construction.

The Editors believe there are other salvaged Sunderland’s at Hendon and Duxford.

The Trust Experience

The exhibits are located in an attractive building which is an invitation itself.

The approach builds expectation.

First impressions are excellent and the building is naturally lit and spacious.

Exhibits are accessible to disabled visitors.

A circular route can be followed. As mentioned there is reference to all the armed services but the material relating to the Sunderland is integrated throughout and possibly will be the main focus for most visitors.

The Trust has an impressive merchandising area close to reception and a wide range of books models and memorabilia are available.

Its early days in the Trusts history and their programme to raise T9044 from the seabed.

As with many museums budgets might limit what can be achieved.

 

 

?????????

Figure 1.These two postcards on sale at the Trust sum up the charisma of the Sunderland

Exploiting potential

The editors consider that the Trust and the Sunderland have enormous potential.

In order to enhance the visitor experience it is thought possible that the Trust might:

  • Reinforce the connectivity with the dock, water and flying boats by providing viewing platforms to the sea and or a history trail to the water edge or guided tours
  • Provide flying simulators which visitors can use including the attack procedures
  • Floating simulator as many will never have experienced what a flying boat means
  • Provide period film and stills linked to flying boat activities
  • Until T9044 can be raised and restored consider a recreation of parts especially cockpit and fuselage again for purpose of introducing public to reality
  • Explain the logistics of servicing the Sunderland’s i.e. land to sea connections and ferrying
  • There are multiple layered educational opportunities not least in weather, flight navigation , radio, logistics and the significance of the convoys and their role supplying Britain with food and raw materials
  • In-depth connectivity with linked local interests such as Carew historic airfield
  • The promotion of related flying events on the water and around the neighborhood
  • Creation of environmental facilities to support creative media and TV/film opportunities
  • Greater use and presentation, accessibility of related archive

The editors accept that there might be budget constraints but some extraordinary volunteering and education opportunities exist. Local tourism and businesses will benefit. Its thought that purpose built simulators could be constructed that would withstand high visitor usage and provide greater educational opportunities imparting experience without damage or risks. These are seen as totally complementary with restored items.

Pembroke Dock offers a ferry connection to Ireland.

Chapman /Lotus & Motor Racing Circuits in Wales

Visitors to the Sunderland Trust might be interested in motor racing sites in the principality.

These include:

  • Llandow
  • Pembray
  • Pendine
  • Anglesey
  • Portmerion

Items in bold are dedicated A&R articles.

The Proposed CCM&EC

The proposed museum believes that commercial considerations are both necessary and complementary with its educational objectives.

For these reasons our Business Plan includes provision for promoting products and services which share Chapman’s ideals of mechanical efficiency and sustainability. In addition we propose merchandising that explain and interprets the social and cultural context of Chapman’s designs in period. It’s suggested there will be catalogue for on line purchasing.

In particular we would wish to integrate and support all related museums and collections. The intention is increase and intensify visitor satisfaction, enjoyment and learning opportunities. Support will also embrace exchanges which in term will permit exciting exhibition opportunities.

On line facilities will enable visitors to network, plan, buy, book and order on line.

Conclusion

The Pembroke Dock Heritage Centre/Sunderland Trust has the potential for a very special authenticity .It has made an encouraging start and it’s hoped it can build on its momentum and that the experience will particularly take off with the raising of T9044.

3.0 Lotus Elan and the adverts

Introduction

This is a new series that will examine car sales material and potential promotional photography used by Colin Chapman. Chapman commissioned sales literature from the Mk.VI onwards. In the 1950’s and 60’s off-set printing became reasonably affordable and almost immediately we see Chapman respond along with his marketing colleagues.

The A&R has a good cross section of these brochures in various forms adopted from the earliest to the present.

This article in fact is hybred.It combines an examination of a specific car brochure for the Elan Sprint with an aircraft connection but takes a look at the aircraft that Chapman had access to at Group Lotus as there is a correlation between the two .We will develop this.

  • Subscribers might like also to see complementary pieces relating to the Elan:-
  • Sun Star 1/18th scale model review of 1966 Elan S3
  • Carnaby Street Boutique culture and the Lotus Elan
  • The Avengers
  • Colin Chapman and Aviation
  • Colin Chapman and Microlights

Elan Debonair

Beechcraft Model 35 Debonair and Bonanza a Beechcraft is seen in the background of the main Lotus advertisement.

During the Second World War Beechcraft imitated a study of the anticipated postwar aircraft market. This would allow them to plan new products. Beechcraft deducted that a large potential market might exist for a four passenger plane if he price could be fixed between $6-7000.The specification or category they developed was for:-

  • A utility aircraft
  • 4 person carrying capacity
  • Space for additional instruments
  • Night flying equipment
  • Space for extra fuel
  • Passenger baggage storage
  • An engine of 150 hp was considered the lowest power output needed
  • A”V” tail reduced weight and cost
  • Retractable landing gear

These two aircraft were part of a range designed by Ralph Harman after the Second World War. It’s reputed that each major part was designed, built and thoroughly tested. This procedure resulting in redesign where needed. It’s thought the first example was flown in 1945.

They evolved into a relatively fast low wing monoplane. They were very popular as private aircraft and enjoyed a long production life. By the end of 1967 more than 8700 had been sold. In 1968 the retail price was $37,500.

Doblin remarks:

“The Bonanza is a handsome sassy, clean purposeful airplane …………Beechcraft’s fine reputation for building top performance, thoroughly reliable aircraft”

Analysis of Sales Brochure for: Lotus Elan Sprint [see actual brochure image above]

1. Visual imagery, content and message / marketing of the brochure

This is two sided colour brochure [slightly smaller than A4.]The front page with title “Pace Setter” might be considered the front [see details below]. The reverse contains the main image of the yellow and white Elan Sprint with gold trim which is posed on an airfield with a Beechcraft behind.

The visual allusion, connection and identification with this particular aircraft has been outlined above; not least the performance, reliability, quality and established reputation.

In addition the more generalized association with airplanes are:-

  • Speed, maneuverability exhilaration and freedom
  • Convenience, directness and ability to cross borders
  • The privacy and business application “money is time”
  • The pleasure opportunity to indulge and enjoy experiences highlighted
  • Carrying capacity for various purposes
  • The strong connectivity associated with voyage, liberty, exploration and escape
  • The inference of ownership and financial status this implies

Of course these features/functions are integrated and entwined with that of the pilot and the ability to fly. To be a pilot implies:-

  • Skill ,bravery and established measured competency
  • Physical and mental alertness /fitness/ stamina etc.
  • Status of the occupation and responsibility it carries
  • An understanding of the theory and technology of flight
  • The ability to navigate and understand metrological terms etc.
  • The very term pilot conveys high status and association with seniority , conduct ,likens or near equivalent to captain and an individual in control
  • The great possibility that the pilot is also the owner of the plane.

These qualities combined are then deliberately identified with the car and its driver. The creative leap of identification is that the car possesses the qualities of the plane and the driver of the pilot. It’s seeking to make connections and to allow the owner to make projections.

There is possibly also the attempt to introduce one to another and an inference that a pilot will feel completely at home with the Elan. [These are not exaggerations because the Elan was exceptional -see related analysis]

This aspect was also aspirational as we have noted with the implication that an Elan owner might become a pilot /plane owner in the near future. The suggestion of course one provides an introduction even momentum into the other.

It’s rather interesting that the front sheet presents a contrasting perspective.

This side of this brochure comprises a collage of photographs arranged in a square:-

  • Elan  fording a stream
  • Two children sitting in car
  • Detail of steering wheel and dash
  • Detail indicating quality comfort of seats
  • Young woman [ Mary Quant fashion] sitting in driving seat
  • Twin cam engine red cam covers prominent
  • Boot space

Along with the tag line that reads:-

The Pace Setter

“The exhilarating Elan Sprint .alive , taut, tense , quick as cat [ ask a bird] .Not for the ham fisted  or lead –footed; very definitely for the driver  who knows precisely  how to handle the most exhilarating  sports car in the world, output 126 bhp no les.”In summary, it’s an excellent little sports car- Julian Mounter, The Times”. Much can be said about the legendary Lotus Elan a test drive does in much better. Ask your dealer –or contact us for full details and information”

Lotus and Firestone –The Legend Makers

These combined images may be considered in variance with the flying connotations presented. However the very modernity of the Elan is breaking moulds not just in technical/ motoring terms it’s appealing and reaching new cultural norms that emerged in society during the 1960’s.It’s important here to explore our series on the design decades and related themes of the Swinging Sixties. The Lotus marketing people possibly were very aware of their potential younger generation audience and their rejection of many previous norms.

2.         Examine briefly the social/historical context where appropriate.

See Lotus Design Decade and peers available. Subscribers might like to refer to our introductory article which breaks down the brochure categories and where it’s possible to see the other aviation related sales material. The A&R has contended that Chapman and Lotus in part defined the 1960’s .this was a very significant achievement possibly previously underestimated. Their marketing material is therefore more adventurous and attuned than might be first thought.an appreciation and evaluation is only possible when viewed against a cultural understanding of the era.

3          Examine the model in context [note technical. Information invariably contained within brochure itself]

The Elan  was an extraordinary car. For many it was one of the defining cars of the decade. Its design, specification and performance are material to its marketing and evident commercial success. Rather than repeat this information here subscribers are directed to our scale model review where the aesthetics and design package of the Elan are considered in detail

The advertising /marketing of products can occasionally suffer from hybroil.Lotus were not immune from this. For this reason the editors suggest direct comparison with the road test conducted by “Autocar” and “Motor” etc. The editors question why the marketing people had to invent any aura when objective evidence was available.

The “Autocar” report no 1988 of 21.8.1964 commented:-

“without a doubt , the Elan is a sports car –thoroughbred because it owes its characteristics  almost entirely to Lotus racing experience, In its construction, suspension , lightness and appearance it is very modern…….a car built from scratch by people who know what keen drivers want”

In their verdict they awarded the Elan 5 star and concluded:-

“anyone  to whom the Elan  is likely to appeal should try to arrange a trial run because this is very much a driver’s car .The advantage of being lighter than competitors models should be experienced as well as read about”

The model they tested cost £1387.

In their test published 1965 “Motor” contrasted the Elan [£1,436] with the Austin Healey 3000 [£1,166] Daimler SP250 [£1,356] and the Triumph TR4. [£958]

They further added:-

“Just occasionally one comes across the car which is the ultimate in its chosen field; the lean, in performance and drivability , is way ahead of all the opposition in its class –the field of the true, practical “Fun car”………..perhaps the trim could be more beautiful , and the rubber coupled drive shafts cause some longitudinal surging unless the car is driven very smoothly, but there is little else on which to fault a car superbly designed for its job………….the performance is little short of phenomenal , not only through the gears and for tractability in the high gears , but for its complete lack of temperament.

The Sprint c 1966 was retailing for approximately £1686 and was available in component form. It’s believed taking information from “The Lotus Book” that an estimated figure between 900-1353 Sprints were built.

Does this brochure succeed?

The editors suggest yes with slight reservations.

The information sheet is simple yet direct with strong contrast. It manages to marry the product with the potential customer. It uses in part aviation but also importantly the family and women as a uniting bridge and trigger of connectivity. Many potential customers will aspire to both. Many of the younger customers would probably be unable to achieve them immediately but they were on the way and possessed the ambition to do so.The advertisement tells them that potentially they can own the car and advance towards the plane and that ownership of the car will assist career and income development. It offers a trajectory and the assurance of a symbiotic relationship.

The editors wonder if the two images presented might seem contradictory and set up conflicting messages. This might have been intentional projecting extremely positive and progressive relationships in the sense that the Elan was perceived as such a versatile car .It was capable of coexisting and performing diverse roles equally well not least for the safe transport of the family. Furthermore the imagery possibly addressed a new courageous trendy mould braking audience more able and willing to break out from traditional and historical stereotypes. In  its own way it was feminist. The imagery of the plane and reference to pilot could equally appeal to women.

The Elan was a good design well executed for the desired audience and well-presented and marketed. It also appeared themed with other backgrounds [see initial introductory article]

The editors appreciate this is not an exact science and welcome comments from our subscribers.

Scale Model Review

Subscribers may be interested in seeing our scale model review of the 1966 Elan S3

Group Lotus Aircraft

Both Rudd and Haskell informs us that at various times the following planes were at Colin Chapman’s disposal. This tells us a lot about Chapman and deserves greater study. The planes may have earned their keep across several functions and provided sympathetic backdrops for promotional photography:-

  • Miles Messenger
  • Piper Comanche
  • Cessna Chancellor [ Registered G-Prix {JPS livery}]
  • Bell Jet Ranger Helicopter

The editors believe it significant that Chapman was very well acquainted with these aircraft and that a combination of his pilot skill and aviation technology [practical and theoretical] feed into his road/racing car designs. For this reason we believe it’s important to examine their specification. We have already noted the adoption of aircraft in Lotus marketing material. Aircraft were to figure significantly in presentation and be part of the jet age modernity that Chapman wished to communicate.

Miles Messenger [note specification taken from the net]

Specification (Messenger 2A)
General characteristics
• Crew: one, pilot
• Capacity: three passengers
• Length: 24 ft 0 in (7.32 m)
• Wingspan: 36 ft 2 in (11.03 m)
• Height: 7 ft 6 in (2.29 m)
• Wing area: 191 ft² (17.75 m²)
• Empty weight: 1,450 lb (659 kg)
• Max. takeoff weight: 2,400 lb (1,091 kg)
• Powerplant: 1 × Blackburn Cirrus Major 3 4-cylinder air-cooled inline engine, 155 hp (116 kW)
Performance
• Maximum speed: 135 mph (219 km/h)
• Service ceiling: 16,000 ft (4,878 m)
• Rate of climb: 950 ft/min (290 m/min)

Piper Commanche

Specifications (PA-39)
Data from the Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft (Part Work 1982-1985), 1985, Orbis Publishing, Page 2735
General characteristics
• Capacity: four/six seat
• Length: 25 ft 2 in (7.67 m)
• Wingspan: 36 ft 9½ in (11.21 m)
• Height: 8 ft 3 in (2.51 m)
• Wing area: 178 ft2 (16.54 m2)
• Empty weight: 2270 lb (1030 kg)
• Gross weight: 3725 lb (1690 kg)
• Powerplant: 2 × Avco Lycoming IO-320-B1A flat-four piston engine with counter-rotating propellers, 160 hp (119 kW) each each
Performance
• Maximum speed: 205 mph (330 km/h)
• Range: 1200 miles (1931 km)
• Service ceiling: 20,000 ft (6095 m)

The Piper Navajo

The Navajo are a family of cabin class twin engine aircraft.They are manufactured by Piper Aircraft. They are intended for the general aviation market. Some of the models in the range use Lycoming 310 hp engines.
The Navajo has been a commercial success in the fields of small scale cargo, feeder airlines and corporate transport.
They offered 6-8 seat capacity suitable for corporate and commuter use .Their construction termed low wing monoplane.

They were constructed between 1967 and 1984. Some sources suggest that nearly 4,000 have been built.

Note that a Navajo appears in a publicity photograph with an Elan Sprint in Semister’s book on the Lotus Esprit.

General characteristics
• Crew: one or two
• Capacity: five to seven passengers
• Length: 32 ft 7½ in (9.94 m)
• Wingspan: 40 ft 8 in (12.40 m)
• Height: 13 ft 0 in (3.96 m)
• Wing area: 229 sq. ft (21.3 m²)
• Empty weight: 3,930 lb (1,782 kg)
• Max. takeoff weight: 6,500 lb (2,948 kg)
• Powerplant: 2 × Lycoming TIO-540-A air-cooled six-cylinder horizontally opposed piston engine, 310 hp (231 kW) each
• Propellers: Two or three blade, metal, fully feathering, Hartzell propeller
Performance
• Never exceed speed: 236 knots[33] (438 km/h (272 mph))
• Maximum speed: 227 knots (420 km/h (260 mph)) at 15,000 ft (4,600 m)
• Cruise speed: 207 knots (383 km/h (238 mph)) econ cruise at 20,000 ft (6,100 m)
• Stall speed: 63.5 knots (118 km/h (73 mph)) flaps down
• Range: 1,011 nmi (1,875 km (1,165 mi))
• Service ceiling: 26,300 ft (8,015 m)
• Rate of climb: 1,445 ft/min (7.3 m/s)

Cessna Chancellor

Specifications (414A Chancellor)
Data from Orbis[8]
General characteristics
• Crew: one or two
• Capacity: up to 8 passengers
• Length: 36 ft 4.5 in (11.087 m)
• Wingspan: 44 ft 1.5 in (13.449 m)
• Height: 11 ft 5.5 in (3.493 m)
• Wing area: 225.80 sq ft (20.978 m2)
• Empty weight: 4,365 lb (1,980 kg)
• Gross weight: 6,750 lb (3,062 kg)
• Powerplant: 2 × Continental TSIO-520-NB flat-six turbocharged piston, 310 hp (230 kW) each
Performance
• Maximum speed: 270 mph; 435 km/h (235 kn)
• Range: 1,528 mi (1,328 nmi; 2,459 km)
• Service ceiling: 30,800 ft (9,388 m)

Bell Jet Ranger
Specifications (206B-L4)

Jet Ranger

Bell 206B Jet Ranger taking off from Vancouver Harbour HeliJet pad.
Data from Bell 206B-L4 specifications
General characteristics
• Crew: one pilot
• Capacity: four passengers
• Length: 39 ft 8 in (12.11 m)
• Rotor diameter: 33 ft 4 in (10.16 m)
• Height: 9 ft 4 in (2.83 m)
• Disc area: 872 ft² (81.1 m²)
• Empty weight: 2,331 lb (1,057 kg)
• Max. takeoff weight: 3,200 lb (1,451 kg)
• Powerplant: 1 × Allison 250-C20B turboshaft, 420 shp; derated to 317 shp due to drivetrain limitations (310 kW)
Performance
• Never exceed speed: 130 knots (241 km/h, 150 mph)
• Maximum speed: 120 knots (222 km/h, 138 mph)
• Range: 374 nmi (430 mi, 693 km)
• Service ceiling: 13,500 ft (4,115 m)
• Rate of climb: 1,350 ft/min (6.9 m/s)
• Disc loading: 4 lb/ft² (177 N/m²)
• Power/mass: 0.26 hp/lb (427.48784 W/kg)

The Proposed CCM&EC

The proposed museum believes that commercial considerations are both necessary and complementary with its educational objectives.

For these reasons our Business Plan includes provision for promoting products and services which share Chapman’s ideals of mechanical efficiency and sustainability. In addition we propose merchandising that explain and interprets the social and cultural context of Chapman’s designs in period. It’s suggested there will be catalogue for on line purchasing.

In particular it’s proposed to retail sales brochures and memorabilia derived from them including posters, cards, calendars, postcards. The proposed museum has the potential to hold originals in archive, buy, sell and exchange brochures and undertake exhibitions that explore marketing of Chapman derived products.

The design of brochures also has a strong educational content and this will be exploited with direct and indirect learning opportunities and competitions.

The proposed CCM&EC business plan allows for a considerable interpretation of aviation / aerodynamic technology with demonstrations and commercial income from activities related to flying along with links to be clubs and flying schools etc. which are intended to extend and complement the learning experiences available. In addition we propose outreach and overlaps with aviation museums. In addition it’s intended to hold working demonstrations and display pieces to complement school and college curricular etc.

The proposed museum is subtitled the “Exploratory -Laboratory” and our visitors and students will be encouraged to conduct experiments. In particular basic flight simulators will enable students to measure and experience theoretical principles in practice.

Conclusion.

There are parallels between motoring and aviation. These go beyond engineering .Not least perception and association that influence marketing and owner identification.

Much of the Chapman genius was to recognize parallel technologies and extrapolate between to the two. Only second was his determination to use specialists to extract the best possible design and performance.

In the editors estimation very strong bonds are forged between Chapman and aviation. This we have seen extends between the adoptions of technology through to marketing with a very deliberate correlation. Of course many motoring manufacturers attempted to make the same connectivity with aviation but few perhaps had the likes of Chapman so heavily steeped , submerged and permeated in aeronautical concepts and who’s products owed so much to their principles.

The editors feel it’s probable that the exact extend of Chapman’s impact on popular culture has been vastly underestimated. His achievements in this arena are possibly far greater than credited. Those who bought Lotus cars were style leaders. Where they went others followed .Chapman and his marketing team were possibly more attuned to the era than has been credited. Through their sales brochures and related materials they were not only selling products but impacting on the era, accepted taste and expectation. They were also embracing a changing society along with feminism.

As we have noted sales brochures are a function of communication and marketing. As long  as products and services are manufactured to some extend there remains a requirement to bring these to a targeted audience.

The design and presentation of sales materials is a dynamic subject .It requires understanding of psychology, the brand, the product, the customer and the prevailing culture. To some extent it also requires an appreciation of rivals. Brochures and other sales materials generate income but also have a cost. When commissioned these need to be balanced and the selection of consultants and the ability to grasp subtle sometimes sublime messages is an art.

Much of Chapman’s design mantra is technological but his racing programme would have been more difficult without selling road cars .Consultancy and a creative sales strategy through brochures played an important role .Therefore this exercise is particularly relevant and has educational overlaps for the creative industries and marketing students. Between the manufacturer, marketing professionals and customer are dynamic cultural interfaces.

Reference:

The Lotus Collectables Book.W.Taylor.Coterie.2000.

ISBN: 1902351010

The Lotus Book.Taylor.Coterie

Lotus.Bacon.Sunburst.1995.

ISBN: 1857781473

Vintage Ad Gallery

Colin Chapman’s: Lotus Engineering. Haskell Osprey.1993.

ISBN: 1855323761

Tony Rudd –It Was Fun. Tony Rudd [see A&R book review]

One hundred Great Product Designs.Doblin.Van Nostrand Reinhold.1970.

Please note the editors of the A&R attempt to give the broadest spectrum of references but not all are available for consultation in an article. However by noting their existence it may assist students in their research.

*Items in italics non A&R library books.

4. The Avengers and The Prisoner: Episode 2, Take 2

Introduction

This is a composite article.

It is part book review but also a strong complementary reinforcement and extension of previous A&R articles on the Avengers and The Prisoner.

In this article we integrate two very diverse books that are united in their focus of cult TV and the automobile. One is populist the other dedicatedly academic [but extremely useful, readable and graphic] – see quotations below.

The two books are:-

  • TV Cars by Giles Chapman
  • The Cult TV Book edited by Stacey Abbott

The editors also emphasize the aspect of mass audience and connectivity with marque mystique and directly sales.

Subscribers might like to see related A&R articles:-

  • The Prisoner and Portmerion
  • The Lotus Elan and Carnaby Street
  • Lotus Design Decades:1960’s
  • Product placement
  • Chapman’s Catalogue: Lotus Advertising and Brochures
  • Lotus on Track/Track Records [LP jackets etc.]
  • Pop Art

This article will be of interest not only to Lotus enthusiasts but to a wider audience with interests in automobile design and styling, creative media, writing/ script writing, props, marketing, branding and fashion.

Subscribers will of course suggest that the E Type Jaguar and Mini were possibly more famous but there will little doubt  the Seven and Elan captured the hearts, minds, emotions, desires and intelligence of the public throughout the world where they were presented through TV broadcast.

The mystique and enduring myth of Chapman and Lotus will not be fully appreciated just by study of competition results. Much of the reputation and marketing opportunity was created in the cult TV programmes we highlight and analyze.

Lotus, Cult TV, Media and the Public Psyche

TV and film are extremely important art forms. They inspire, entertain often enrich, share experience of common humanity. In the cult genre they often enter the public psyche where they remain indelible.

The actual production and ownership of the cult cars referred to will be limited but through TV and media they are shared by billions on the world stage.

Although not formal advertising often the appearance of a marque in a cult classic will both generate demand out of all proportion and extend down the generations in its reverence and impact.

Lotus has achieved this on the following occasions:-

Lotus Elan & Europa                       The Avengers

The Lotus Seven                             The Prisoner

The Lotus Esprit                               James Bond and Pretty Woman

“The Cult TV Book is the companion reference to this TV phenomenon whose shows push the boundaries and offer biting commentaries on society to-day…..

Cult TV is also changing; whereas being cult used to mean being marginal with a small, loyal fan base, cult TV is now key to the television industry .Fandom is global and online.

Cult status for a show is fostered by the networks; and cult series are noted for their spectacular special effects and sumptuous visual style………so what is cult TV today? Leading scholars, writers and journalists redefine our understanding of cult TV with new approaches to case studies.

Cult TV is a work of 279 pages approximately and extremely well written. A measure of its thoroughness and inclusion is the extensive Works Sited [bibliography] and TV & Film Guide along with index.

It comprises 4 parts:-

Part 1              Define Cult TV: History, Aesthetic, Discourses

Part 2              Reading Cult TV: Texts and Context

Part 3              Constructing Cult TV: The Broadcast Industry & Cult Television

Part 4              The Cult in Cult TV: Audiences Fans Fandom

Chapman does not offer a detailed critique of cult TV rather concentrating on the cars but he does make some useful observations of the various programmes included:-

“What they have in common is car star whose performance was as vivid, in its own way, as that of the cast”

We will develop this but essentially the cars are complementary, symbolic expressions of the characters and plots being developed and articulated.

Although not perhaps articulating the same depth of analysis Chapman has a cultivated appreciation and of Maigret commented:-

“Apart from the extremely well-crafted feel of the show its success was down to the near perfect casting of British actor Rupert Davies as the man himself. From the moment Maigret struck a match on wall to light his pipe in the opening credits accompanied by Ron Grainer’s splendid accordion theme music, you knew you were in for compelling entertainment”

Chapman’s work comprises a study of 50 major TV series starring cars and a further 25 lesser examples. The editors favorites with Lotus highlighted are as follows:-

Programme Marque Model Series Marque Model Marque Model
Adam Adamant Lives Austin Mini Cooper S
Bergerac Triumph 1800 Roadster
Captain Scarlet Cheetah
Charlie's Angels Ford Mustang II Pinto
Columbo Peugeot 403 Cabriolet
Dr.Who Whomobile
Dukes of Hazard Dodge Charger
Inspector Morse Jaguar Mk.II
Life on Mars Ford Cortina Mk.II
Magnum PI Ferrari 308 GTS
Maigret Citroen 15-Six Tracton A
Miami Vice Ferrari Daytona Ferrari Testarosa
Minder Jaguar XJ6 Damiler D-Six Ford Capri
Only Fools and Horses Reliant Regal Ford Capri
Starsky & Hutch Ford Torino
Supercar Supercar
The A -Team GMCG Van Chevrolet Corvette
The Avengers/New Avengers Lotus Elan Lotus Europa Bentley 3L
The Baron Jensen CV8
The Persuaders Ferrari Dino 246 GTS Aston M' DBS
The Prisoner Lotus Seven Mini Moke
The Professionals Ford Capri Ford Escort Ford Granada
The Protectors Jensen Intercep' Citroen SM
The Saint Volvo P1800 Jaguar XJ-S
The Sweeney Ford Consul Ford Granada Jaguar S Type
The Trouble Shooters Morgan
Z Cars Ford Zephyr Mk.III
1of 25 secondary
Dr.Finlay's Casebook Austin 8

The Prisoner

Seven

Figure 1.This photograph was taken from the net. It is captioned Pictorial Press. Giles Chapman also uses this image on page 6 of his book, and his photograph credits suggests it’s also part of his library.

Chapman comments:-

“In the titles, Number Six drives a Lotus Seven series II, a green car with yellow nose cone and registered KAR 120C .It speeds straight towards the camera under gathering skies before Number Six drives to, and from his resignation confrontation. The Seven’s allusion to motoring freedom  suited the central character of the Prisoner but Number Six also divulges an interesting snippet in the episode Many Happy Returns .”I know every nut and bolt and cog” he growls.” I built it with my own hands! “Our man it seems constructed his own Lotus kit….

McGoohan knew the value of “casting” the right car. Possibly inspired by The Avengers, in 1965 he asked Lotus to loan an Elan for the show, but while visiting the Cheshunt factory, he noticed the Seven and reckoned it had a more rebellious aura. Lotus happily obliged”

Cult TV [Sergio Angelini] observers:-

“The richness of the text has ensured that this allegory masquerading as an adventure series with SF trappings has been the subject of dozens of books and led to the creation of one of the first organized cult appreciation societies, “Six of One”

Subverting genre conventions from within involves at a basic level a fundamental betrayal of audience expectations, the laying down of a challenge to accepted norms of television appreciation as mass media. For devotees of cult television, part of the appeal can come in finding shows such as The Prisoner that bring something genuinely new to ones appreciation of genre and the syntax of television, even questioning the orthodox of programming itself”

The Avengers

Avengers

Figure 2. Image from the net. Emma Peel [Diana Rigg] and Lotus Elan

 Chapman comments:-

“The glory days for the show, however, dawned in 1966 after Brian Clements came on board to add polish and genuine charm. As part of the creative overhaul, the cars began to be chosen to reflect the character traits of the roles. Emma Peel’s Elan is the shining example. “Lotus were pretty pleased with the result”, Clements remembers. “They told me the publicity was worth £5 million to them, a helluva lot of money then”

“Previously cars had not featured highly for Steed’s female companion…….Now Emma peel was provided with a groovy, yet elfin, car to suit her image- a Lotus Elan”

In relation to our chosen image from the net. Chapman observes:-

“When the Avengers shifted into colour  … The car changed hue too. Lotus provided the latest Elan S3 in a light , powdery blue registered “SJH 499D”.It gained far more  screen time , popping up in 19 shows, and the massive popularity of The Avengers ensured the Elan and Diana Rigg became intemperately linked in the viewing public’s mind”

Cult TV [Paul Sutton] observes

“Commentators have suggested that these women were amongst televisions first “feminist female lead[s] [Andrea, 1996, p115].”The Avengers”, it is argued “refunctioned the patriarchal discourse of the spy genre, transforming woman from an object of male desire into a subject who possessed “masculine” power and independence. For the first time on television a woman fought back rather than being merely a passive victim” [Andrae,1996:116]……………..As the director of numerous episodes from the Emma Peel era, Roy Baker recalls that the series was among the first in the world to feature mini –skirts and was instrumental in promoting this fashion statement[2000:122]

As “extensions of their personalities” [Murray,1998:47] the vehicles driven by Steed and Emma are important elements in the series appeal…………just as the clothes worn…………. are central to the look of “The Avengers”, so are the vehicles they ride ……..and contrast with the sporty and modern but equally iconic Lotus Elans and Europa’s………..cars that were signifiers of technological originality and innovative design of the 1960’s but which today signify the decade itself.”

Simply expressed television heroines such as Cathy Gale [played Honor Blackman] and Emma Peel [Diana Rigg] of the Avengers were independent, educated, cultivated, liberated, technologically aware, poised, athletic but also sexy, sophisticated and strong.

The cars they drove in “character” perfectly reflected these ideals.

Exhibitions, Education and Commercial Opportunities

I the possible museum context the editors believes that commercial considerations are both necessary and complementary with its educational objectives.

For these reasons our recommendations includes provision for promoting products and services which share Chapman’s ideals of mechanical efficiency and sustainability. In addition we suggest a prospect for merchandising that explain and interprets the social and cultural context of Chapman’s designs in period. There is the possibility for a catalogue for on line purchasing.

In particular it’s important to understand the role and consequence of Lotus cars in cult TV and cinema.

The Swinging Sixties produced many icons of fashion. “The link between media, music and fashion was central to pop culture in the 1960’s .The Bond films and TV shows such as the Avengers and The Man from UNCLE provided role models for both sexes.

In order to celebrate and analyses this it might be possible to stage:-

  • Exhibition with possible themes of “Cars, Stars, Fashion and Feminism”
  • Workshops
  • Photoshoots
  • Educational exercises and opportunities
  • Exploit the connectivity with London and particularly TV and Carnaby Street.

Conclusion

Humanity has evolved with an empathy and intelligence based around visual understanding, comparison, association, identification, categorization. These are often based on forms of extrapolation .They have contributed to safety and survival in a dangerous environment. Also they become engrained in learning discerning and comprehension. Humanity has required that faculty of essentially being able to determine visually form and function.

As society became more sophisticated the faculties of recognition became part of language, communication and acceptance. With degrees of certainty objects might be assigned values , performance function and in turn this were worked into signs, symbols emblem, flag, logo, badge, crest image, totem and token and visual expression for the purpose of transferring complex multi layered concepts.

We now associate the terminology as:

  • Analogy
  • Simile
  • Allegory
  • Emblematic
  • Metaphorical
  • Symbolic
  • Correlative

In the cult programmes these reached high degrees of refinement, sophistication and graphic iconography. They were extremely “British” honouring and upholding the virtues of liberty and free expression. The assisted and contributed directly and indirectly, subtly, consciously and subconsciously to the definition of the cast they supported. They relied on a strong sense of personal identity and self-expression even projection.

The editors understand Colin Chapman to be educated, cultured and cultivated man with enormous reserves of conceptualization which is directly related to imagination [and in Chapman case harnessed with an engineer’s realism and objectivity].Not overlooking he was very successful entrepreneur.

It is very likely he lent his cars to these cult TV programmes in the full knowledge they pushed the envelope. Chapmans car designs have always been extremely powerful totems. They possessed a clear radiant, uncompromised self-evident beauty reflecting true form and function. They were easily read, comprehended and understood. They were light elegant and diametrically opposed to bruteism. Their design so evidently self-articulating and honest required no interpreters to decode their symbolism or message.They sold.

Chapman’s designs have readily identified with a noble human spirit with its desire for liberty, freedom, expression and mobility. This is evident in the Seven’s selection for the The Prisoner where McGoohan identifies the engineer with the ability to construct and self -determine his existence. Association and identification were particularly important with regard to Emma Peel and the Elan. Here a bridge is constructed between feminism and technology. Not that of a brute, violent destructive force but rather a subtle, holistic intelligent application of technology within a beautiful sculptural totality.

The message was not missed. Few manufacturers have succeeded in creating a folk lore, handed down the generations like Chapman and Lotus. The myth of Lotus is deeper, sublime and more subtle than is imagined.

It’s for these reasons amongst others it’s considered a museum is beneficial in order that these important cultural dimensions are articulated, disseminated and preserved for posterity.

Reference:

The Cult TV Book.Ed.by S.Abbott.I.B.Tauris.2010.

ISBN: 9781848850262

TV Cars. Giles Chapman.Haynes.2006.

ISBN: 1844253920

Andrae, Thomas [1996]”Televisions First Feminist. The Avengers and female spectatorship”

Discourse 18:3,112-136

Swinging Britain. Fashion in the 1960’s.Armstrong.Shire.2014.

ISBN: 9780747812487

The A-Z of the 1960’s.A&I Morrison.Breedon.1989.

ISBN: 0907969607

20th Century Fashion: The 1960’s.K.Powe-Temperley.Heinmann.1999.

ISBN: 0431095515

Costume in Context: The 1960’s and 70’s.Ruby.Batsford.1989.

ISBN: 0713460741

Please note the editors of the A&R attempt to give the broadest spectrum of references but not all are available for consultation in an article. However by noting their existence it may assist students in their research.

*Items in italics non A&R library books.

5. Newest Acquisitions to A&R Library/Book Review

Million

Date: 30/03/2015

Author: Derrick and Clay

Title: Million-Dollar Classics: The World’s Most Expensive Cars

Publisher &Date: Blue Red Press.2011

ISBN: 9781908247001

A&R library copy: Yes

The dust jacket introduces and summaries this book extremely well.

It kicks off with:

“What makes one car change hands at auction for millions of dollars, while others of the same era, and sometimes even from the same manufacture –are now worth next to nothing?”

The authors continue their argument:-

“The answer lies in a complex combination of:-

  • Style
  • Power
  • Beauty
  • Exclusivity
  • Rarity

Million Dollar Classics is a breath-taking record of the finest automobile works of art ever created”

Derrick and Clay have chosen fifty examples .The editors offer their selection from the catalogue:

1932 Bugatti Type 55
1933 Bugatti Type 59
1937 Bugatti Type 57S
1938 Alfa Romeo Tipo 2900 B
1938 Talbot Lago T23 Teardrop
1939 Mercedes Benz W154
1955 Jaguar D Type
1959 Ferrari 246 S Dino
1960 Maserati Tipo 61 Birdcage
1962 Aston Martin DB4 Zagato
1963 Shelby Daytona Coupe
1964 Ford GT 40 Prototype
1966 Ferrari 250 LM
1996 McLaren F1

Each of the automobiles selected has a brief decription outlining design objectives, aesthetics, production volumes and where possible the price when new.

Each is accompanied by an excellent set of photographs which comprise a selection of overall concept / body shape in three-quarter view, engine detail, dashboard detail, side elevation, constructional detail like wheel hubs, mascot or marque badge.

The text is supported by a brief technical data panel comprising the following details:-

  • Country of Origin
  • Body Designer
  • Manufacturing Dates
  • Power
  • Maximum Torque
  • Top Speed
  • 0-60 mph
  • Transmission
  • Engine
  • Length
  • Width
  • Wheelbase
  • Kerb Weight
  • Brakes
  • Suspension
  • Auction sale Date
  • Price

An important work, the obvious focus being highly valuable cars, but it underpins this with reference to their design, specification, aesthetic and significance.

The editors find it interesting that many of the selection are competition cars, here possibly two important price criteria merge- the purest of function with rarity.

It’s also possible to look at epochs and readers will perhaps detect two distinct concentrations. These appear to be the decade’s pre and post Second World War.

The earlier when aerodynamic theory was being applied often in an organic understanding almost symbolic fashion and later when the science was more refined and mathematic.

There is quite a jump to the McLaren FI.This is notable for its organic shape and perhaps cerebral and emotional response to what is correct or perhaps better expressed as the perceived appropriateness of form and function.

Derrick and Clays work might also be read in a more challenging manner that examines the value of objects; particularly works of art. Critically what makes fine art so expensive, not the canvass or paints, [often the frames were more expensive], and they have little utility. It will be argued they represent high ideals, noble or challenging concepts and their ongoing inspiration and humanitarianism but cynically their greater significance is their scarcity; which becomes a function of supply and demand.

Important works of art are sought by museums to retain national heritage or complement collections and indeed enhance national pride and engender tourism. It’s an irony that as more works enter museums, supply and demand alters in favour of those works remaining in private hands.

As some of the automobiles are fetching prices comparable with old masters it is time perhaps that old snobberies were overturned and some automobiles seen in their true engineering sculptural aesthetic equal and even superior in many respects.

Although no Lotus is included in Million –Dollar Classics the editors firmly believe that certain Lotus types could reach comparable figures at auction certainly their significance and technical genius exceeds some of those quoted by Derrick and Clay. The editors believe that they ought to be a museum reflecting the achievements of Chapman and lack of appreciation might be due to ignorance and not enjoying the same academic attention as given to other marques.

The editors have not quoted any of the specifications given but will do so on request. Subscribers might have views on those automobiles included and a dedicated article might follow, to extend the debate and parity.

No doubt subscribers will be critical that there has been significant ommissions by derrick and Clay in their  work. It’s not possibly through space for authors to include all we understand, but Derrick and Clay might have provided an appendix that might have traced prices over time.

This work shines as a result of some very beautiful photography, and the editors detect through this medium the automobile might be re-evaluated.

As such subscribers might like to cross reference with A&R articles:-

  • An Aesthetic study of the Cisitalia
  • Art of the Formula 1 Race Car [book review]
  • The Art of Lightness –Museum Exhibition Review
  • Auto Legends by Zumbrunn [ISBN:9781858943480]
  • British Auto Legends by Zumbrunn[ISBN:978858944128

 6. Lotus 72 Upload (Gary Critcher).

Hi Neil,  I just wanted to let you know that I have uploaded a short 6-minute excerpt from one of the interviews we have filmed for the DVD.

You can see it here  https://vimeo.com/118697320  and it’s over at the main site, too  www.lotus72dvd.com

7. Lotus collectables

Lotus Evora S IPS, gelb , Modellauto, Fertigmodell, Bburago 1:24

Evora

8. Lotus interest on Youtube

One item on Youtube maybe of interest our readers

A lot of great footage.

Lotus Elise with Hayabusa Turbo Engine by ZCars

 

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Thank you for your continued  interest and support

Editors of the newsletter

John Scott-Davies

Neil Duncan

Jamie Duncan  (webmaster)