John Player Specials: Tipped to Win
This is an intentional hybrid article.It examins the theory of branding along with its practical application between John players and Colin Chapman/Lotus.Sponorship is material to success in many sporting disciplines and as each of these increase their technologic content, research and expense grows. Sponsorship is a significant assistance to the budget and outcomes.
Sponsorship would not happen without financial rewards.
In this article we therefore examine the concepts and overlaps of sponsorship and branding in some detail. John Player Special will be our primary focus exploring the importance of the John Player Special [JPS] livery worn by Colin Chapman’s FI cars. In this first instance we examine the 1983 season.
It is acknowledged that FI has the largest TV audience of any annual global sport. It has been estimated recent figures suggest approximately 597 million audience along with 1.5 million minutes of coverage each year. Sponsorship and branding are therefore extremely important and cost effective marketing. Although the figures might have changed there is relativity and similar principle in the JPS era.
In this article we will examine the importance of JPS to Chapman and Lotus but we also believe that the principles outlined will be relevant in many situations and will therefore be of interest to many beyond the technicalities of motor racing.
In the studies of Colin Chapman much emphasis has been placed on the technical content of his innovative designs but little has been said about the merits and distinctive livery of JPS and the rewards this brought to both the sponsor and Chapman /Lotus. In this series of articles the A&R will explore and attempt to measure/ estimate:-
- The impact of the JPS brand imagery
- The numerical, commercial and financial aspects of sponsorship
- Detail the merchandising opportunities exploited
- Examine the aesthetics and benchmark the competing sponsor liveries in the seasons that JPS entered
These articles will not over focus on technical specification [these are available in other A&R sources] or race histories. The A&R will concentrate on the aesthetic visual design impact of the JPS livery in a wide context. It is hoped that this approach will both appeal and provide practical assistance/ inspiration to graphic designers, visual communication/ corporate identity consultants, brand managers, fashion designers and those entrepreneurs who might be considering sponsorship in various capacities /formats.
Colin Chapman was not a man to look backwards [although he was a dedicated and exhaustive researcher] and for this reason the proposed CCM&EC uses information to assist the solving of current and future demands .The A&R attempts to be a source of and springboard of inspiration .Brands and sponsorship remain important aspects of marketing inside and outside motor racing. It is for this reason we believe it’s an important discipline worthy of serious study feeding creativity and relevant to both the present and the future.
It is not insignificant that the current generation of Lotus FI cars have adopted the distinctive back and gold livery.
Subscribers may like to see A&R complementary piece Lotus and Sponsors, book review “Art of the Formula One Race Car” and our articles on the motorsport artists Walter Gotschke and Michael Turner which are directly relevant.
The winning formula /package of Lotus/JPS might easily be overlooked. It might be considered to comprise a symbiotic integrated package that included the Lotus /Chapman design /technology and strategy/ driver element, the funding that facilitated this care -off the JPS sponsorship and the distinctive JPS livery that made the cars instantly regoniseable and gained international support.
The totality of the package and presentation enabled JPS to possess the following:-
These are the modern terminology and criteria for being considered a cool brand [see details below].However throughout the 1960’s branding and corporate identity became important with the growth of multinationals. Competition and differentiation were important .JPS achieved extraordinary exposure and positive identification as a result of its association with Lotus and the symbiotic presentation of its distinctive JPS livery.
It might be argued that JPS were able to project all six of the listed criteria as a result of their graphic logo/ livery as presented on the Championship winning Lotus FI cars.
The totality of performance and presentation promoted global brand awareness and helped forge extensive and lucrative business relationships along with the ability to accelerate its profile, goodwill and provide a platform to communicate.
The mutuality of the package have helped define the respective companies [i.e. association, reinforcement of professionalism and success etc.].The sponsorship also contributed to helping other manufacturers become famous and successful.
Cigarette sponsorship in F1 –History and Context
Sponsorship had existed in various forms but it Colin Chapman who is particularly identified with its widespread introduction into international motor racing. The following is quoted from the net:-
Ever since the first appearance of the Red, Gold and White colors of the Imperial Tobacco‘s Gold Leaf brand sponsorship livery at the 1968 Monaco Grand Prix, teams, drivers and circuits ofFormula One (F1) for years had been heavily dependent on the financial backing of sponsors and from the arrival of Gold Leaf for many decades the tobacco industry played a major role in sponsoring the sport. In 1976, West Germany began a trend in outlawing tobacco sponsorships in motor races, followed by the United Kingdom in 1984, starting with major races and outlawing the rest of the sponsorships in later years. In 1992 France did the same. As anti-smoking legislation began to tighten in many parts of the world F1 became an even more important opportunity for cigarette brand promotion. The negotiating skills of the F1 leadership (especially Bernie Ecclestone) were such that in many jurisdictions F1 achieved some exemptions from the rules. However, there is now a blanket ban on advertising in Europe, and the cars are not allowed to show any links with the tobacco companies. As a result, tobacco advertising started to exit F1. In 2000, WilliamsF1 became the first major team to run without tobacco sponsorship, and McLaren later replaced the West brand and no longer have any tobacco sponsors. Renault ended the deal with Mild Seven after the 2006 season, and in the same year British American Tobacco, owners of British American Racing team withdrew from F1, selling the team to Honda. Ferrari on the other hand renewed their arrangements withPhilip Morris in 2005 and later in 2011. 
Through the arrangement, the Marlboro brand in 2007 was legally visible prominently on the cars, jumpsuits and pit crew at three races: at the Bahrain, Monaco and Chinese Grand Prix.Ferrari was the only team backed by a cigarette brand in the 2007 Formula One season. Since the start of the 2008 season, Ferrari has no longer carried Marlboro logos at any races, even those at which tobacco advertising is allowed. It is therefore unlikely that any F1 car will ever directly advertise tobacco again. However the barcode symbol that was used for some time was “subliminally” suggestive of the Marlboro branding, and signified their sponsorship. For part of 2010 and onwards, Ferrari no longer had the barcode symbol; the only signification of sponsorship was the team name, Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro, although the team’s logo showed the left side of the Marlboro chevron. However, from the 2011 British Grand Prix, Ferrari dropped the Marlboro sponsor from their official name, and reverted to the name Scuderia Ferrari as their official name, due to ongoing pressure from people against tobacco sponsorship.[83
Formula One Liveries: Lotus history [from the net]
|Year||Main colour(s)||Additional colour(s)||Livery sponsor(s)||Additional major sponsor(s)||Non-tobacco/alcohol livery changes|
|1968–1971||Red and white||Gold||Gold Leaf(Imperial Tobacco)|
|1972–1978||Black||Gold||John Player Special(Imperial Tobacco)||Olympus (1978)|
|1979||British racing green||Red, White and Blue||Martini||Tissot|
|1980||Dark blue||Red, White and Silver||Essex||Tissot|
|1981–1986||Black||Gold||John Player Special(Imperial Tobacco)||Essex, Tissot, Courage(1981); Olympus (1985);DeLonghi (1986)||“John Player Special” and the “JPS” was replaced with Laurels designs|
|1987||Yellow||Blue||Camel||DeLonghi||“Camel” was replaced with “Lotus”|
|1988||Yellow||Blue, Green||Camel||“Camel” was replaced with “Lotus”|
|1989||Yellow||Dark Blue||Camel||Epson||“Camel” was replaced with “Lotus”|
|1990||Yellow||Blue, Light Green||Camel||“Camel” was replaced with “Lotus”|
|1991–1992||Green||White (1991); Yellow (1992)||BP||Hitachi, Tamiya, Tommy Hilfiger, Komatsu,Nichibutsu, Shionogi, Castrol|
|1993–1994||Green, white and red||Black and yellow||Castrol||Hitachi, Tamiya,Tommy Hilfiger,Miller, Loctite,Shionogi, Mobil 1, Pepe Jeans,Komatsu, Nichibutsu, SG Gigante (on Pedro Lamy’s Car, as it was his sponsor)|
|Year||Main colour(s)||Additional colour(s)||Livery sponsor(s)||Additional major sponsor(s)||Notes|
|2012||Black||Gold, Red||Lotus,Genii||Total, Rexona,CLEAR, Trina Solar, TW Steel,Renault,Microsoft Dynamics||The team partnered with alternative rock band Linkin Park at the2012 Monaco Grand Prix to promote an iPadapplication.
The team promoted the movie Dark Knight Risesat the 2012 British Grand Prix.
|2013||Black, Red||Gold||Lotus,Genii||Total, Rexona,CLEAR, Burn,Renault,Microsoft Dynamics,Columbia Records||The Lotus livery changed a little for 2013, with both cars featuring their drivers’ respective names near the top air intake. Rumours said that the team was close to signing Honeywell as their sponsor and changed the livery accordingly in advance.|
|2014||Black, Red||Gold||Lotus,Genii||Total, Rexona,CLEAR, Burn,Renault,Microsoft Dynamics,Columbia Records, Yota Devices,Avanade,Richard Mille,Peace One Day|
1983 Formula 1: Brands and Sponsors –Comparative Impacts
|Euroracing Alfa Romeo||183 T||Marlboro||Goodyear|
|Arrows-Ford||A6||GPI/Louis de Poortere||Goodyear|
|Benetton Tyrrell Ford||O11/ O12||Benetton||Goodyear|
|Equipe Renault Elf||RE 30/C 40||Elf||Michelin|
|Ferrari||126 C2/B C3||Fiat/AGIP||Goodyear|
|Fila Sport Paramalat Brabham||BT52||Fila/Paramalat||Michelin|
|JPS-Renault||94 T||John Player||Pirelli|
|Ligier Gitanes-Ford||JS 21||Gitanes||Michelin|
|Marlboro McLaren TAG||MP4 /1E||Marlboro||Unipart||Michelin|
|March RAM Ford||O1||Pirelli|
|Spirit Honda||101/201 C||Honda||Newsweek||Goodyear|
|TAG Williams Saudia||FW 08C / FW09||TAG/Denim/ICI||Saudia||Goodyear|
|Theodore Ford||N183||Café de Colombia||Goodyear|
|Toleman Hart||TG 183 B||Candy||Magirus||Pirelli|
Many cigarette companies have sponsored motorsport one of the most notable has been Marlboro who sponsored:-
In 1983 Marlboro sponsored both Marlboro Team Alfa Romeo and Marlboro McLaren [MP4-1C]
There was both merits and demerits to this. Supporting both teams provided double exposure, hedged bets in competition .It might also be argued that it divided and diluted impact and deprived one team of greater resources and therefore the possibility of outright win. Furthermore the near duplication of the livery might have caused some confusion in the eyes of the audience.
John Barnard designed the MP4-IC and it possessed a carbon fibre composite chassis. The Marlboro logo comprised a strong bold diagonal alternating bands of red and white. The Marlboro font in black appeared on the body side as seen in elevation.
Although recognizably it was not particularly distinctive or inspired.
Ligier Gitanes JS 21
By contrast the Ligier Gitanes JS21 bore a graphic and attractive livery of Gitanes. This comprised a light/mid blue “French” blue background incorporating the moody and atmospheric representation of the “Gypsy Dancer” embroiled in smoke .It was particularly Gallic floured .The Gitanes brand name in large slanting white letters/typography was featured on the body sides within the wheelbase. The other sponsors were incorporated in a complementary, coordinated and coded discipline. Overall the image was strong with powerful contrast. The depiction invoked the brand and the two were symbiotic.
Subscribers might like to see internet sites that detail the racing liveries but alsowww.logosdatabase.com which provided useful reference and comparability.
Brands, Hallmarks, Trademark and Design
The corporate identity creation business developed dramatically with the growth of multi-national corporations and emergence of global products.
The concern for an organization is very much how it can convey its function, product or service. Corporations aspire to a brand /logo etc. that will be clear, coherent and lead to allegiance and cohesion. It has been generally acknowledged that:-
“Design can be used to convey to people the shape and nature of the organization that might otherwise be formless” from The Corporate Personality by Olins 1978 and reinforcing the point Forty observed:-
“Of all the ways in which design can influence the way we think, the only one to have been acknowledged widely has been its use to express he identity of organizations”
Trademarks, hallmarks and brands are separate, not interchangeable but tend to overlap and thought of as synonymous.
“Brand is a product [or class of products] including trademark ;its brand name , its reputation and the atmosphere built up around it .When we talk about a brand we talk about verbal visual and conceptual aspects of product identity… brands are both convenient to both producers and consumers…….branding does for sales what mechanization does for production ..It facilitates advantages of scale”
Trademarks are important “Marks of Excellence” relates that:-
“A trademark is a sign. The sender of the trademark uses his mark to identify himself to the world” this might be done in three ways:-
- As owner
- As manufacturer
The origins of trademarks extends into:-
- Communication theory
- Graphic design
Many of the most distinguished have passed down through antiquity and are often rooted in heraldry and or monograms. Examples with the motor industry and related fields are:-
- Alfa Romeo
The application of these marks are applied to:-
- Sales literature
- Shop fronts
JPS: Content of indelible brand/trade/hallmark
As noted the adoption of the logo/trademark is extremely important .It serves simultaneously so many functions including defining, articulating and defending the product service etc. For this reason great care is exercised in the selection and design or maintenance of historic imagery. Because subtle signals are being conveyed the graphic content has to work hard to be representative.
Some of the qualities expected are:-
- Possessing symbolic quality/value and strong association
- Distinctive –preferably unique vis differentiation
- Memorable-preferably indelible i.e. form of holding power
- Internationally or universally communicable i.e. not requiring translation or capable of misrepresentation
- Simple and powerful integrated with other declared objectives
- Recognizable at a glance [ graphic excellence] and in manner that assists purchase
- Easily replicated Vis reproduction on different surfaces materials and products etc.
- Classic in manner not dating thus avoiding image change etc.
- Translatable i.e. viewer can articulate what they have seen
- Ideally able to influence “taste” and increase sales
Aesthetics of the JPS FI Imagery /Livery. John Player Specials: Tailor-made distinctive and Exclusive
It has been stated that the John Player Special livery is the most famous, indelible and recognisable ever adopted in FI.There has never been perhaps such a striking, integrated distinctive, coordinated, disciplined and hierarchical concept. It succeeds at being simultaneously understated yet powerfully elegantly aggressive and assertive.
The art of the concept is brought home in Mann’s photographs. [Art of FI Race Car]
The impact is achieved through the severely limited colour range of gold on black imposed upon the totality of the body that enhances is sculptural functionality.
The black wedge is mythical.
The monogram is heraldic and deferred to tradition particularly the coach lining /pin striping.
predominantly black body is elegant yet intimidating .Disciplined and controlled it impresses and extracts maximum effect and impact. Not least the accentuation of the imposing proportions length, width, height and uncompromising wedge penetration stance of the FI race car.
Motor bodies have traditionally been painted black. It’s practical and radiates quality but it also loses nuances and definition of form. However in the Lotus treatment and the inclusion of the entwined gold JPS logo and written font the Type 72 mixes tradition with almost science fiction iconography.
There is a real art to this. It’s the art of how to deploy to the maximum effect. Font designers appreciate that minutiae can have considerable effect on “readability” or comprehension. The Lotus designers understand this and apply it very successfully.
Examined carefully only a black and yellow/gold is adopted throughout. Including the background to the race numbers. The other sponsors logo are required to submit to the design discipline and hence coordinated in a totality with no discordant displays.
Each item is placed for graphic attention grab. The coach lines /pin stripes around the engine, end plates, wings and pods accentuate shape and are clearly visible from all elevations.
Under such a disciplined regime even the matt black tyres blend in along with the engine cam covers. Only the minimal white lettering of Ford and Goodyear are allowed to depart from the regime. Supreme attention to detail is evident, small examples like the rear view mirrors also black and the chrome suspension and roll bar enliven.
The Lotus John Player Special interpretation was a gift. In the history of brands and imagery the JPS stands out. It immediately conferred on Lotus and JPS a status. It sent out powerful signals. Its recognition and acceptance provided invisible horsepower. It made the sponsor a winner on and off the track. Products require differentiation. The Lotus /JPS livery provided it in spades. It also sold memorabilia.
James Mann’s photography bring this out and credit must be given for the power of his observation and the means that he has rendered the subject. Even the cockpit interior seems subject to the coordinated discipline and code.
It’s very easy to understand why the current generation of Lotus Formula 1 GP cars have revisited this unmistakeable combination.
The editors would suggest that Art of the formula 1 Race Car is more than an art book. Read and interpreted holistically there are strong overlaps with architecture as noted.
Icons of Architecture explains the apartment Buildings rue Franklin, Paris by Aguste Perret is defined in terms of Perret’s design philosophy;
“Two tenants of A.Perret’s conception of architecture are in evidence in this building: that ornament and structural support are intimately connected and that any architect who could express himself through a buildings construction was a poet”
Some engineers will maintain there is nothing but function all else is pretention artificiality, graffiti and egotism. Although the editors accept some of this reasoning they appreciate that Chapman was one of the greatest engineering designers not given to frippery but he also appreciated and incorporated art. He did not merely plonk decals indiscriminately over the body. He used the totality of the surface.
Chapman is known for his believe in multiple function. His designs were elegant, effective. Self-articulating, graphically communicative, memorable. They sold.
In “Icons of Architecture” many of the revered buildings performed a dual role too functional and simultaneously promoted the owner and corporate image.
The JPS Lotus Type 78  image from net. Note working drawings providing the basic outlines on to which sponsors livery can be depicted.
JPS –Art and Advertising/Crossovers
Branding and logo display and presentation has always been important. When Lucky Strike changed their imagery sales increased dramatically. Logo’s and livery were very much part of packaging but developed with the advent of posters, billboards and illustrations in magazines. In many respects this was two dimensional and somewhat passive.
Graphic and industrial design of logos have and remain a significant function of marketing. Although not considered high art they play an important part in our culture and are seen by the world’s population.
Between commercial art and fine art has been an exciting boundary that the best motorsport art has captured. Artists have painted pictures of the JPS Lotus and this is probably attributed to its distinctiveness. Depiction have taken many forms some like the programme cover illustrated above. In particular Walter Gotschke painted a superb picture of the Hockenheim GP, 1978 and portrayal of Lotus Type 79; foreground with Colin Chapman and Mario Andretti background.
Michael Turner has rendered Gold Leaf /JPS Lotus on many occasions and includes:-
- 1968 Monaco Grand Prix Hill Gold Leaf Team Lotus
- 1970 Dutch Grand Prix Rindt Gold Leaf Team Lotus
- 1972 south African GP Fittipaldi JPS
- 1973 Swedish Grand Prix Peterson JPS
- 1974 Monaco Grand Prix Peterson JPS
- 1977 U.S. Grand Prix M.Andretti JPS
The incorporation of the JPS livery onto the Lotus FI cars gave it an immediate 3D sculptural quality as it was integrated over the whole body. Furthermore the logo was given speed and dynamic in the process. A typographic name would suffer in blurring and the ability to read at speed whereas the JPS livery stood out under all conditions and lifted its differentiation and made it possibly the most easily recognized and memorable.
Hot Brands and Smoking Tyres: The significance of Brand
In a world dominated by competition strong easily recognized brands play an important role. In the fight for market share unique corporate identity is absolutely crucial.
- Provide orientation
- Encourage loyalty
“Branding is the process through which meaning and value are added to products.at its simplest, a brand is a guarantee of authenticity and replicability, a badge of trustworthiness and a promise of performance.
Thus a brand exists as a collection of notions in the customers mind .Branding however, can actually affect our perception of a products physical characteristics and thus positively colour our experience of using their products.to this extent, branding is used widely by manufacturers as cost effective means of adding value to their products .On average branding is responsible for over 80% of a products added value, yet accounts for only approximately 20% of its costs. Manufacturers establish brand identity by various means including naming, packaging, advertising and marketing. The idea of “brand personality” is also becoming an ever more important factor in the market place as manufacturers attempt to differentiate their products from those of their competitors……..
The importance of the relationship between corporate identity and branding is illustrated by the success of IBM, General Electric and Ford. These companies rank amongst the top five brands worldwide, a position they have achieved not least by investing enormous resources into integrated corporate design programmes that encompass brand strategies. The implementation of house style for both product and packaging is key to the establishment of a house style for both product and packaging is key to the establishment of brand identity……………..
Corporate identity design which is strongly related to packaging design, is a means by which companies and or brands can give their products or services a visually unified character that will differentiate then from others in the market place. Central to corporate identity is the company logo which is normally used on all corporate projections”
Peter Behrens, Industrial Designer at AEG and considered the father of brand identity observed:-
“We register a type face when reading rather as we notice the flight of a bird”
The following information is taken from the internet. It’s an important set of information to understand in order to form an appreciation of JPs.
We provide information in some detail in this initial piece in order that it can be bypassed in future additions.
JPS is considered an iconic brand.
Iconic brands are defined as having aspects that contribute to consumer’s self-expression and personal identity. Brands whose value to consumers comes primarily from having identity value are said to be “identity brands”. Some of these brands have such a strong identity that they become more or less cultural icons which makes them “iconic brands”. Examples are: Apple,Nike and Harley Davidson. Many iconic brands include almost ritual-like behavior in purchasing or consuming the products.
There are four key elements to creating iconic brands (Holt 2004):
- “Necessary conditions” – The performance of the product must at least be acceptable, preferably with a reputation of having good quality.
- “Myth-making” – A meaningful storytelling fabricated by cultural insiders. These must be seen as legitimate and respected by consumers for stories to be accepted.
- “Cultural contradictions” – Some kind of mismatch between prevailing ideology and emergent undercurrents in society. In other words a difference with the way consumers are and how they wish they were.
- “The cultural brand management process” – Actively engaging in the myth-making process in making sure the brand maintains its position as an icon.
Visual brand language is branding terminology for a unique “alphabet” of design elements – such as shape, color, materials, finish, typography and composition – which directly and subliminally communicate a company’s values and personality through compelling imagery and design style. This “alphabet”, properly designed, results in an emotional connection between the brand and the consumer. Visual brand language is a key ingredient necessary to make an authentic and convincing brand strategy that can be applied uniquely and creatively in all forms of brand communications to both employees and customers.  Successful Visual Brand Language creates a memorable experience for the consumer, encouraging repeat business and boosting the company’s economic health. It is a long-term creative solution that can be leveraged by an executive team to showcase their brand’s unique personality.
For example, as shown, a Starbucks constant, main design ingredient was black and white icons. The icons represent elements of the “alphabet”. Each year, the promotional campaigns would use the same icons but the color palette and the featured icons would change. Another distinguishing iconic design element is the BMW ‘split grill’ continually employed to represent the brand. While the grill size and design details evolve over time, the underlying idea is constant and memorable. The use of color is also a powerful associative element for consistent imagery, as exemplified by the comprehensive application of orange by The Home Depot across all its brand materials.
Brand Definition and Concepts
Brand is the “name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller’s product distinct from those of other sellers.” Brands are used in business, marketing, andadvertising. Initially, livestock branding was adopted to differentiate one person’s cattle from another’s by means of a distinctive symbol burned into the animal’s skin with a hot branding iron. A modern example of a brand is Coca-Cola which belongs to the Coca-Cola Company.
In accounting, a brand defined as an intangible asset is often the most valuable asset on a corporation’s balance sheet. Brand owners manage their brands carefully to create shareholder value, and brand valuation is an important management technique that ascribes a money value to a brand, and allows marketing investment to be managed (e.g.: prioritized across a portfolio of brands) to maximize shareholder value. Although only acquired brands appear on a company’s balance sheet, the notion of putting a value on a brand forces marketing leaders to be focused on long term stewardship of the brand and managing for value.
The word “brand” is often used as a metonym referring to the company that is strongly identified with a brand.
Marque or make are often used to denote a brand of motor vehicle, which may be distinguished from a car model. A concept brand is a brand that is associated with an abstract concept, like breast cancer awareness or environmentalism, rather than a specific product, service, or business. A commodity brand is a brand associated with a commodity.
A logo often represents a specific brand.
Proper branding can result in higher sales of not only one product, but on other products associated with that brand. For example, if a customer loves Pillsbury biscuits and trusts the brand, he or she is more likely to try other products offered by the company such as chocolate chip cookies. Brand is the personality that identifies a product, service or company (name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or combination of them) and how it relates to key constituencies: customers, staff, partners, investors etc.
Some people distinguish the psychological aspect, brand associations like thoughts, feelings, perceptions, images, experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and so on that become linked to the brand, of a brand from the experiential aspect. The experiential aspect consists of the sum of all points of contact with the brand and is known as the brand experience. The brand experience is a brand’s action perceived by a person. The psychological aspect, sometimes referred to as the brand image, is a symbolic construct created within the minds of people, consisting of all the information and expectations associated with a product, service or the company(ies) providing them.
People engaged in branding seek to develop or align the expectations behind the brand experience, creating the impression that a brand associated with a product or service has certain qualities or characteristics that make it special or unique. A brand is therefore one of the most valuable elements in an advertising theme, as it demonstrates what the brand owner is able to offer in the marketplace. The art of creating and maintaining a brand is called brand management. Orientation of the whole organization towards its brand is called brand orientation. The brand orientation is developed in responsiveness to market intelligence.
Careful brand management seeks to make the product or services relevant to the target audience. Brands should be seen as more than the difference between the actual cost of a product and its selling price – they represent the sum of all valuable qualities of a product to the consumer.
A brand which is widely known is said to have brand recognition. When brand recognition builds up to a point where a brand enjoys a critical mass of positive sentiment in the marketplace, it is said to have achieved brand franchise. Brand recognition is most successful when people can state a brand without being explicitly exposed to the company’s name, but rather through visual signifiers like logos, slogans, and colors. For example, Disney has been successful at branding with their particular script font (originally created for Walt Disney’s “signature” logo), which it used in the logo for go.com.
Consumers may look on branding as an aspect of products or services, as it often serves to denote a certain attractive quality or characteristic (see also brand promise). From the perspective of brand owners, branded products or services also command higher prices. Where two products resemble each other, but one of the products has no associated branding (such as a generic, store-branded product), people may often select the more expensive branded product on the basis of the quality of the brand or the reputation of the brand owner.
Brand awareness refers to customers’ ability to recall and recognize the brand under different conditions and link to the brand name, logo, and jingles and so on to certain associations in memory. It consists of both brand recognition and brand recall. It helps the customers to understand to which product or service category the particular brand belongs and what products and services are sold under the brand name. It also ensures that customers know which of their needs are satisfied by the brand through its products (Keller). Brand awareness is of critical importance since customers will not consider your brand if they are not aware of it.
There are various levels of brand awareness that require different levels and combinations of brand recognition and recall. Top-of-Mind is the goal of most companies. Top-of-mind awareness occurs when your brand is what pops into a consumers mind when asked to name brands in a product category. For example, when someone is asked to name a type of facial tissue, the common answer is “Kleenex,” which is a top-of-mind brand. Aided awareness occurs when a consumer is shown or reads a list of brands, and expresses familiarity with your brand only after they hear or see it as a type of memory aide. Strategic awareness occurs when your brand is not only top-of-mind to consumers, but also has distinctive qualities that stick out to consumers as making it better than the other brands in your market. The distinctions that set your product apart from the competition is also known as the Unique Selling Point or USP.Marketing mix modeling can help marketing leaders optimize how they spend marketing monies to maximize the impact on Brand Awareness or sales effects. Managing brands for value creation will often involve applying marketing mix modeling techniques in conjunction with brand valuation.
Brands typically are made up of various elements, such as: 
- Name: The word or words used to identify a company, product, service, or concept.
- Logo: The visual trademark that identifies the brand.
- Tagline or Catchphrase: “The Quicker Picker Upper” is associated with Bounty paper towels.
- Graphics: The dynamic ribbon is a trademarked part of Coca-Cola’s brand.
- Shapes: The distinctive shapes of the Coca-Cola bottle and of the Volkswagen Beetle are trademarked elements of those brands.
- Colors: Owens-Corning is the only brand of fiberglass insulation that can be pink.
- Sounds: A unique tune or set of notes can denote a brand. NBC’s chimes are a famous example.
- Scents: The rose-jasmine-musk scent of Chanel No. 5 is trademarked.
- Tastes: Kentucky Fried Chicken has trademarked its special recipe of eleven herbs and spices for fried chicken.
- Movements: Lamborghini has trademarked the upward motion of its car doors.
- Customer relationship management
Relationship between trademarks and brand
The brand name is quite often used interchangeably with “brand”, although it is more correctly used to specifically denote written or spoken linguistic elements of any product. In this context a “brand name” constitutes a type of trademark, if the brand name exclusively identifies the brand owner as the commercial source of products or services. A brand owner may seek to protect proprietary rights in relation to a brand name through trademark registration and such trademarks are called “Registered Trademarks”. Advertising spokespersons have also become part of some brands, for example: Mr. Whipple of Charmin toilet tissue and Tony the Tiger ofKellogg’s Frosted Flakes. Putting a value on a brand by brand valuation or using marketing mix modeling techniques is distinct to valuing a trade mark.
Types of brand names
Brand names come in many styles. A few include:
Initialism: A name made of initials such, as UPS or IBM
Descriptive: Names that describe a product benefit or function, such as Whole Foods, Airbus or Toys R’ Us
Alliteration and rhyme: Names that are fun to say and stick in the mind, such as Reese’s Pieces or Dunkin’ Donuts
Evocative: Names that evoke a relevant vivid image, such as Amazon or Crest
Neologisms: Completely made-up words, such as Wii or Kodak
Foreign word: Adoption of a word from another language, such as Volvo or Samsung
Founders’ names: Using the names of real people, (especially a founder’s name), such as Hewlett-Packard, Dell, Disney, Stussy or Mars
Geography: Many brands are named for regions and landmarks, such as Cisco and Fuji Film
Personification: Many brands take their names from myths, such as Nike; or from the minds of ad execs, such as Betty Crocker
Punny: Some brands create their name by using a silly pun, such as Lord of the Fries, Wok on Water or Eggs Eggscetera
The act of associating a product or service with a brand has become part of pop culture. Most products have some kind of brand identity, from common table salt to designer jeans. Abrandnomer is a brand name that has colloquially become a generic term for a product or service, such as Band-Aid, Nylon, or Kleenex—which are often used to describe any brand of adhesive bandage; any type of hosiery; or any brand of facial tissue respectively. Xerox, for example, has become synonymous with the word “copy”.
Open Knowledge Foundation created in December 2013 the BSIN (Brand Standard Identification Number). BSIN is universal and is used by the Open Product Data Working Group of the Open Knowledge Foundation to assign a brand to a product. The OKFN Brand repository is critical for the Open Data movement.
The outward expression of a brand – including its name, trademark, communications, and visual appearance – is brand identity. Because the identity is assembled by the brand owner, it reflects how the owner wants the consumer to perceive the brand – and by extension the branded company, organization, product or service. This is in contrast to the brand image, which is a customer’s mental picture of a brand. The brand owner will seek to bridge the gap between the brand image and the brand identity. Brand identity is fundamental to consumer recognition and symbolizes the brand’s differentiation from competitors.
Brand identity is what the owner wants to communicate to its potential consumers. However, over time, a product’s brand identity may acquire (evolve), gaining new attributes from consumer perspective but not necessarily from the marketing communications an owner percolates to targeted consumers. Therefore businesses research consumer’s brand associations.
Visual brand identity
A brand can also be used to attract customers by a company, if the brand of a company is well established and has goodwill. The recognition and perception of a brand is highly influenced by its visual presentation. A brand’s visual identity is the overall look of its communications. Effective visual brand identity is achieved by the consistent use of particular visual elements to create distinction, such as specific fonts, colors, and graphic elements. At the core of every brand identity is a brand mark, or logo. In the United States, brand identity and logo design naturally grew out of the Modernist movement in the 1950s and greatly drew on the principles of that movement – simplicity (Mies van der Rohe’s principle of “Less is more”) and geometric abstraction. These principles can be observed in the work of the pioneers of the practice of visual brand identity design, such as Paul Rand, Chermayeff & Geismar and Saul Bass.
Color is a particularly important element of visual brand identity and color mapping provides an effective way of ensuring color contributes to differentiation in a visually cluttered marketplace (O’Connor, 2011). 
The amounts that JPS paid are not commonly known and little has been published. Tony Rudd commented what Group Lotus contributed on an annual basis. It would be good research to discover the exact amounts and indeed the contractual details. The reason for this being the full credit for Chapman’s achievements and what he extracted cannot be benchmarked without objective information.
John Player Special Exposure and Marketing: Players “The Worlds a Stage”
The significance of sponsorship in motorsport is that it’s an international /global sport. It therefore approaches the ultimate customer base with a high concentration of the target audience. There is little other investment that has such a return which of course combines projecting an image and that of attracting sales.
The rewards / return on investment might be measured in the following categories
John Players Special: Sponsorship: King –Size Return on investment
The JPS sponsorship of Colin Chapman and Lotus provided the cigarette company the following prizes ,privileges and image boost which could be converted into sales and other business opportunities:-
- Winner title in World Drivers and Constructors Championships and all the publicity and exposure this generated
- Drama glamour and identification with sport
- Large International audience both direct/ indirect
- Target audience vis demographics of consumer
- Related spinoffs and additional merchandising and structured interrelated marketing opportunities [see illustrations/adverts]
- Free publicity direct and indirect as JPS Lotus more than likely to appear in other products advertisements
- Duration. continuity , consistency
- Participation with Chapman with certain knowledge of the technological innovation , aspiration and sheer competitive discipline to win
|Type No.||Year Introd’||Sponsor||Championship Year||Driver/Constr’||Prod ‘ Road Car|
|48/49||1967||Gold Leaf||Championship 1968||Both|
|57/58||1968||Gold Leaf||Type 54 Europa|
|72||1970||GL & JPS||Championship 1970||Both|
|73||1972||John Player S||Championship 1972||Both|
|74||1971||John Player S||Championship 1973||Constructors||Europa|
|76||1974||John Player S|
|77||1976||John Player S|
|78||1977||John Player S||Championship 1978||Both|
|79||1978||John Player S|
|87||1981||John Player S|
|91||1982||John Player S|
|92||1983||John Player S|
|93T||1983||John Player S|
|94T||1983||John Player S|
|97T||1985||John Player S|
|98T||1986||John Player S|
- Exposure and goodwill ,reputation
- British Economy
- Event attendance
- Advertising budget
- Volume of product/ service sales
- Value £’s
- Value hospitality
- Value to Staff and motivation/ identity
- Legacy and collectability
Many of the benefits contribute to financial reward and staff incentives along with engagement and company reputation and participation opportunities especially at events. Sponsorship also provides an interface with opportunities presented from diverse sources to expand or diversify.
JPS Advertising and Merchandising
JPS were able to exploit and extend their exposure through this extensive list of opportunities. It will be noted that they are both direct and indirect. The value of the aesthetic is that they permits sales outside motor racing hence diversifying and extending range.
Adverts direct / indirect Booklets Calendars and cards Cardboard models Child’s pedal car Cigarette lighter ClothesJPS Designers LabelHat, Team shirt, sew on badge, l’weight jacketCrockery/TablewareJugs, ashtrays, mats, etc.Cutaway drawings etc. Drivers Race suit/Overalls Fine Art Information cards /hand-outs JPTL Promotional Materials Jewellery/accessories Key fob Ladies clothesScarf Lotus “stamps” Magazine covers Posters Press Release Programmes Records LP e.g. “Team Lotus” Sales brochures Scale models Scaletric & slot cars Stickers Team uniform Transporters Watches and accessoriesCufflinks, lapel badge
Cars and Stripes
John Player enjoyed a duality of promotion with their livery being applied to the 1978 Esprit also being able to piggy back on the James Bond connection. In 1978 Lotus was successful in FI and the Esprit S2 World Championship Model was released.
Other manufactures who have offered their cars in sponsor livery includes:-
- Martini Porsche 911 Turbo
- Martini Lancia Integrale
- Gulf Ford
- Lotus Esprit Essex Turbo
Extracted from “Cool Brands” [left to right 2008-2013]
These companies are included because they highlight the ongoing importance of brand and image. It’s acknowledged that it’s not just products that are important but ethos can play an important role. Within general perspectives there will be classics .The significance of JPS is that it has proved fairly indelible and the content of its imagery has remained relatively unchanged. It is interesting to note the motoring brands and their comparative performance in the market place.
|1||Aston Martin||iPhone||Aston Martin||Aston Martin||Apple||Apple|
|2||iPhone||Aston Martin||iPhone||Apple||YouTube||Aston Martin|
|4||Bang & Olufsen||iPod||BlackBerry||Rolex||Nike|
|5||YouTube||Nintendo||Bang & Olufsen||Bang & Olufsen||Glastonbury|
|8||Agent Provocateur||Ferrari||Virgin Atlantic|
|9||Rolex||Bang & Olufsen||Ferrari||Nike||Bang & Olufsen||Virgin|
|10||Tate Modern||PlayStation||Dom Perignon||YouTube||Liberty||Ray-Ban|
|11||Dom Perignon||Xbox||BBC iPlayer||Alexander McQueen||Sony||Mercedes-Benz|
|12||Virgin||Tate Modern||Vivienne Westwood||Dom Perignon||Bose||Bang & Olufsen|
|15||PlayStation||Ferrari||YouTube||Chanel||Ben & Jerry’s||Adidas|
|18||Bose||Vivienne Westwood||Ray-Ban||Agent Provocateur||Skype||Song Music Entertainment|
|19||Rolex||Alexander McQueen||Tate Modern||Nike||Alexander McQueen|
The Proposed CCM&EC
The proposed museum believes that commercial considerations are both necessary and complementary with its educational objectives.
For these reasons our Business Plan includes provision for promoting products and services which share Chapman’s ideals of mechanical efficiency and sustainability. In addition we propose merchandising that explain and interprets the social and cultural context of Chapman’s designs in period. It’s suggested there will be catalogue for on line purchasing.
In particular is suggested that a number of exhibitions can be mounted exploring sponsorship past present and future within motorsport. Not least peer comparison and evaluation. This can be explored from differing perspectives not least the aesthetic. Also it permits a study examining the relationships between society, demographics, product, marketing, perception and graphic design. This can be done with the motor racing spectrum. It has an important American element and can examine how brands diversify co relate their products and adopt international perspectives and overcome language and culture barriers… Of course fashion is major player and consideration.
Branding has a long and distinguished history and there have been many iconic and indelible images inside/outside motor racing .These can be presented in a variety of ways to create meaningful educational and design experience from free hand drawing, to modeling and CAD .The subject fundamentally relates to communication in an increasingly diversified, fragmented and virtual world for products and services. There are many interactive opportunities to explore the relationship of sponsorship and branding. Design opportunities and competitions and research activities can be structured for entertainment led education programmes.
The achievements and recognition of JPS and Lotus are incontestable .We believe we have established these facts from known marketing/ branding theory.JPS was an attractive image that gained in status and impact as it was translated into a FI racing car livery. It has been celebrated in “The Art of the Race Car” It has reached a near immortality in its indelible image and mystique. Good research would establish the sales records prior to and post sponsorship of JPS.Its almost certain that JPS reached a more sophisticated audience and acceptability as a result. The other measure of the legend is the legacy and return to the livery in current FI and the collectability of JPS memorabilia.
John Player Specials are worthy of their name. Special has a dictionary definition/ association that includes:-
- Exact, unique
- Specific, exclusive
- Important, individual distinctive
- Exceptional ,outstanding,
- Significant, extraordinary
This was achieved very much as a result of the partnership with Colin Chapman and Lotus.
We noted that Chapman did not look back. Neither will the proposed CCM&EC.The primary purpose of the proposed museum is developing educational strengths of analysis and innovation assisted by access to inspirational sources.
As long as individuals need and consume products and services branding and communication will remain necessary; possibly more so in a virtual world. Into this discipline we hope to make a positive contribution deploying creativity to improve competiveness , add value sharpen targeting and deliver improved quality and freedom of choice as did Chapman in open and free market.
Marks of Excellence.P.Mollerup.Phaidon Press.1999.
Trademarked: A History of well-known brands.D.Newton.Sutton.2008
Interbrand: Top100 Global Brands.2013
Business Superbrands.Superbrands Ltd; 2000
Cool Brand Leaders .Superbrands.2003
Sponsorship and the World of Motor Racing
S.D.Fowell.Hazelton Publishing 1992
Finding Company Sponsors. Chris Wells. Directory of Social Change 2000
Looking after your Donors. Karen Gilchrest. Directory of Social Change 2000
Grand Prix Motor Racing.A.Cimarosti.Aurum Press.1997ISBN:
The Lotus Book.W.Taylor.Coterie.1998.
The Art of the F1 Race Car. Codling & Mann.Motorbooks.2010.
The Guinness Encyclopedia of Signs and Symbols.Foley.Guiness .1993
Trademarks Handbook of International Designs.Wilbur.1966
Museum of Brands:firstname.lastname@example.org
The Museum of Advertising [nb picture library]
Please note the editors of the A&R attempt to give the broadest spectrum of references but not all are available for consultation in an article. However by noting their existence it may assist students in their research.
*Items in italics non A&R library books.
Italics A&R library
Please note the editors of the A&R attempt to give the broadest spectrum of references but not all are available for consultation in an article. However by noting their existence it may assist students in their research.
*Available at British Library
**Available Surrey County Council Library